The re-usage of highly similar and complex parts in widely different organisms in non-treelike patterns is best explained by the action of an intelligent agent.
Compare the latest project to sequence everything to other megaprojects that may or may not answer evolutionary questions.
Catastrophism viewed the planet as having been molded by forces far more powerful than any observable at the present day.
“There can’t be any question about what they meant. Remember, this is a zoology class. Evolution is taught.”
Species are surrounded by other species (often sharing the same body), and therefore may interfere with one another’s fitness.