A diagram in the paper — showing interactions in terms of engineering schematics — is unlike any description of the flagellum that I’ve seen.
Dean Schulz investigated the design of the flagellum with a method that could be described as groundbreaking.
There’s more function in the “junk” than imagined. Caltech finds a significant role: maintaining territories and compartments, and guiding components.
Why do so many academic biologists and other scholars resist the design implications of Doug Axe’s research?
Spiders are another of nature’s master engineers. About half of known spider species (order Araneae) construct webs made of silk.